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An increasing number of publications suggest that the gut microbiota plays a role in the appearance and development of chronic diseases. The mechanisms of action are not yet well defined but likely include a cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the epithelial gut barrier, the intestinal immune system and the enteric nervous system.
Nutritional intakes can influence the composition and function of intestinal microbiota. Research highlight that this interaction is bidirectional. A better understanding of the association between nutrition and gut microbiota could open up new preventive and therapeutic options for chronic diseases.